Rainwater Harvesting Systems
Rainwater harvesting systems are designed to collect and store rainwater for later use. These systems capture rainwater from roofs or other surfaces and channel it into storage tanks or reservoirs. The collected rainwater can be used for various purposes, such as irrigation, toilet flushing, laundry, and even drinking water in some cases.
Readability (vs. Legibility)
Refers to how easily a person understands a complete text or message. It considers factors beyond the individual letterforms, such as font size, line spacing, color contrast, and overall layout. Readability focuses on the overall visual composition and comprehension of the text at a glance. The readable text must be easily absorbed and understood by the audience, even from a distance.
Retrorefective Lettering For Signs
Retroreflective lettering refers to a type of lettering or text that is designed to reflect light back to its source, enhancing visibility and legibility, particularly in low-light or nighttime conditions. Retroreflective materials contain microscopic glass beads or prisms that redirect light, making the lettering appear brighter and more visible when illuminated by a light source, such as vehicle headlights.
The reflective properties of retroreflective lettering allow it to stand out and improve readability, even from a distance or in dark environments. This is particularly important for signage, road markings, and other applications where clear and easily readable text is essential for safety and communication purposes.
Retroreflective lettering is commonly used on traffic signs, road signs, safety signs, and various other applications that require high visibility and legibility, especially in conditions with limited lighting. By using retroreflective materials for lettering, the text becomes highly visible and helps drivers, pedestrians, and other individuals quickly and accurately comprehend important information, ensuring safety and effective communication.
Required parking spaces
The number of required parking spaces determined by local municipalities, regulations, zoning codes, and specific building or development requirements, based on type of land use, e.g. residential, commercial, medical, industrial, educational, etc..
Responsive Lighting Technology
(see Adaptive Lighting Technology)
Return On Investment (ROI)
The annual rate of return or earnings on an amount invested.
Ride Sharing or Ride Hailing
Refers to various forms of carpooling, vanpooling, subscription bus service, but most widely known, the use of Transportation Network Companies (TNC's) such as Lyft and Uber.
Roadway Lighting Committee
A technical committee within the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) that focuses on the development and advancement of lighting standards, guidelines, and best practices specifically related to roadway lighting.
Rough Order-of-Magnitude (ROM)
Rough Order-of-Magnitude (ROM) is a term used in construction to provide a rough estimation of the cost, duration, or scope of a project during the early stages of planning or conceptualization. It serves as an initial approximation to help stakeholders, such as owners, developers, and project teams, get a general idea of the potential size and scale of a construction endeavor before detailed plans are developed.
ROM estimates are typically provided in broad ranges or with a significant margin of error, as they are based on limited information and assumptions made early in the project lifecycle. They are not intended to be precise or definitive figures but rather serve as a starting point for discussions, feasibility assessments, and decision-making processes.
The accuracy of ROM estimates can vary depending on the available data, project complexity, and the expertise of the individuals providing the estimation. ROM estimates are commonly expressed as a percentage range (e.g., -25% to +50%) or in broad categories (e.g., low, medium, high) to convey the level of uncertainty associated with the estimate.
ROM estimates can cover various aspects of a construction project, including:
1. Cost: A ROM estimate for the cost of a project provides a preliminary approximation of the total expenditure required for design, construction, materials, labor, permits, and other relevant expenses. It helps stakeholders gauge the financial feasibility and potential budget requirements early on.
2. Duration: A ROM estimate for the project duration provides a rough idea of how long the construction process may take. It allows stakeholders to understand the time commitments and plan subsequent project activities.
3. Scope: A ROM estimate for the project scope outlines the overall size, complexity, and deliverables of the construction project. It helps stakeholders identify the key components, major milestones, and potential challenges or risks associated with the project.
ROM estimates are often refined and updated as the project progresses, more information becomes available, and detailed planning takes place. They serve as a starting point for further analysis, cost estimation, scheduling, and risk assessment, enabling stakeholders to make informed decisions and allocate resources appropriately during the early stages of a construction project.