Glossary Index of Parking Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z



Pan-joist System

Sometimes referred to as a flat-soffit construction or waffle-slab construction.


A way of thinking that forms the basis for understanding and interpreting a particular subject or field of study. It encompasses a set of theories, concepts, assumptions, and methodologies that shape how individuals and communities approach and analyze a given topic. The term "paradigm" was popularized by the philosopher and historian of science, Thomas Kuhn, who described it as a fundamental shift in scientific thought and practice.

ParkSmart Certification
(formerly known as Green Garage Certification)

Parksmart certification (formerly known as Green Garage Certification) which is the world's only rating system that defines, measures, and recognizes high-performing, sustainable garages.

Developed by industry experts and the Green Business Certification Inc. (GBCI), Parksmart measures more than 50 different aspects of parking facility sustainability, including management practices that maximize performance while minimizing waste; programs encouraging biking, carpooling, electric vehicles, and public transport; and efficient technologies, lighting, and ventilation systems.

Parking as a Service (PaaS)

Parking as a Service (PaaS) refers to a concept where parking spaces or facilities are provided as a service to users on a flexible and demand-driven basis. It involves leveraging technology and digital platforms to streamline the process of finding, reserving, and accessing parking spaces. PaaS aims to optimize parking utilization, improve convenience for drivers, and enhance the overall efficiency of parking operations.

In a Parking as a Service model, a third-party provider typically manages and operates the parking facilities or networks. They may collaborate with parking garage owners, municipalities, or businesses to offer a range of parking services. These services can include real-time availability information, mobile app-based reservation and payment systems, valet parking, electric vehicle charging facilities, and seamless integration with navigation apps or transportation platforms.

PaaS allows drivers to easily locate and secure parking spaces, often through digital platforms or mobile apps. It offers benefits such as reducing the time spent searching for parking, minimizing traffic congestion, and enhancing the overall parking experience. The service provider may employ various technologies, such as sensors, license plate recognition, or mobile payment solutions, to enable efficient management and utilization of parking spaces.

The concept of Parking as a Service aligns with the broader trend of mobility-as-a-service (MaaS), where transportation services are provided on a flexible, on-demand basis. By digitizing and optimizing parking operations, PaaS aims to address parking challenges in urban areas, improve urban mobility, and contribute to a more sustainable and efficient transportation ecosystem.

Parking Access Revenue Control System (PARCS)

A Parking Access Revenue Control System (PARCS) is a type of technology used in parking facilities to manage vehicle access, collect parking fees, and ensure security. PARCS typically consists of a combination of hardware and software components, including parking gates, ticket dispensers, payment kiosks, and a central management system.

When a vehicle enters a parking facility, a PARCS system typically issues a ticket that serves as proof of entry. As the vehicle exits, the driver presents the ticket to a payment kiosk or attendant, and the system calculates the parking fee based on factors such as the length of stay and the type of vehicle. The driver can then pay the fee using cash, credit card, or other accepted payment methods. PARCS systems can also be configured to allow for parking reservations, loyalty programs, and integration with other technologies such as license plate recognition and mobile payment platforms.

Overall, a PARCS system helps parking facility operators to efficiently manage vehicle access and revenue collection while providing a convenient and secure parking experience for customers.

Parking Concessionaire

A company or entity that is granted the rights and responsibilities to operate and manage a parking facility or parking services on behalf of a property owner or governing authority. The concessionaire is typically responsible for the day-to-day operations, maintenance, and revenue generation of the parking facility.

When a parking concession is awarded to a company, it involves a contractual agreement between the concessionaire and the property owner or authority granting the concession. The terms of the agreement may include the duration of the concession, the scope of services to be provided, financial arrangements, and any specific performance requirements.

Parking Demand Analysis

A parking demand analysis involves collecting data on the number of vehicles parked in the area during different times of the day and week. This data can be used to determine the peak parking demand, which can then be used to determine the appropriate number of parking spaces needed in the garage.

Parking Design

The layout and design of a parking facility based on standard criteria and municipal codes.

Parking Ordinances

A set of regulations and rules established by local governments to govern parking activities within a specific jurisdiction. These ordinances are designed to manage and control parking in order to ensure public safety, facilitate traffic flow, and allocate parking spaces fairly. Parking ordinances typically cover various aspects, such as parking time limits, parking zones, parking fees, designated parking areas, enforcement procedures, and penalties for violations.

Parking Rate/Fee

The amount charged for parking a vehicle, often determined by the length of stay and/or the area in which the vehicle is parked.

Parking Ratios

Parking ratios are used to determine the number of parking spaces needed based on the type of development and its location. For example, residential developments typically require fewer parking spaces per unit than office or retail developments.

Parking Utilization Studies

Parking utilization studies involve monitoring the usage of existing parking spaces in the area to determine the utilization rates. This information can be used to determine the appropriate number of parking spaces needed in the garage.


Pay-per-click is an online advertising model in which advertisers pay a fee each time their ad is clicked by a user. It is a form of internet marketing where advertisers bid on keywords or target specific audiences, and their ads are displayed on search engines or other online platforms.

Perforated panels

Flat sheets of metal that contain regularly spaced holes or perforations. These panels are widely used in various industries for a range of applications due to their aesthetic appeal, functionality, and versatility.

Photovoltaic (PV) panels

Commonly referred to as solar panels, are devices that convert sunlight directly into electricity using the photovoltaic effect. These panels are a key technology in the renewable energy sector and play a crucial role in generating clean and sustainable electricity.

Planned Unit Development (PUD)

A zoning and land use planning tool that allows for greater flexibility and creativity in the design and development of real estate projects. PUDs are commonly used in urban planning and development to create mixed-use developments, master-planned communities, and projects with unique design characteristic

Post-tensioned concrete

A construction technique used to strengthen and reinforce concrete structures. It involves the use of high-strength steel tendons or cables that are tensioned after the concrete has hardened. This technique allows for greater flexibility in design and can provide significant advantages over conventionally reinforced concrete.

Precast Concrete Institute

A trade association and technical institute that focuses on the advancement and promotion of precast concrete design, manufacturing, and construction. Founded in 1954 and headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, the PCI represents companies and professionals involved in the precast concrete industry.

Precast Pretensioned Concrete
(see also Cast-In-Place Post-Tensioned Concrete)

Precast pretensioned concrete refers to a construction method where concrete elements are manufactured off-site in a controlled environment and then transported to the construction site for installation. In this process, high-strength steel strands or cables are tensioned and anchored to a casting bed before pouring the concrete. This tensioning applies a compressive force to the concrete, allowing it to withstand the anticipated loads and stresses it will experience once installed.

After the concrete cures and reaches its required strength, the precast elements are lifted and transported to the construction site, where they are positioned and connected to form the desired structure. Precast pretensioned concrete offers several advantages, including improved quality control, faster construction timelines, enhanced durability, and the ability to create complex shapes and sizes.

This construction method is commonly used in various applications, such as bridges, parking garages, commercial buildings, and infrastructure projects, where the benefits of prefabrication and prestressing contribute to efficient and reliable construction.

Public-Private Partnership (PPP)

A financing model where both the public sector (government) and private sector entities collaborate to develop and fund a project, such as a parking garage. In the context of parking garages, a PPP typically involves a government entity partnering with a private company or consortium to design, construct, operate, and finance the parking facility.