Glossary Index of Parking Terms

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Hard construction costs

Hard construction costs refer to the direct expenses associated with the physical construction of a building or structure. These costs typically include materials, labor, equipment, and any subcontractors necessary for the construction work. Hard construction costs do not include expenses associated with the design or engineering of the project, or any indirect costs such as insurance, permits, taxes, or financing fees. Examples of hard construction costs include the cost of concrete, steel, lumber, electrical and plumbing systems, roofing, windows, and HVAC systems. These costs are typically fixed and easily quantifiable, and are a critical component of the overall construction budget.


HVAC stands for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning and refers to the technology, systems, and equipment used to control and regulate the temperature, humidity, and air quality in indoor environments such as homes, offices, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities.

Hybrid Steel System

A structural system that consists of steel beams and columns, with concrete precast double tees as the deck members.