Glossary Index of Parking Terms

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In construction, a portion of a floor or deck extending beyond the vertical column; an overhang.

Carbon Footprint

Total amount of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that are directly or indirectly associated with an individual, organization, product, event, or activity. It's a way to measure the impact of human actions on the environment in terms of their contribution to global climate change

Cast-In-Place Post-Tensioned Concrete (see also Precast Pretensioned Concrete)


Cast-in-place post-tensioned concrete is a construction technique where concrete is poured on-site into formwork and then reinforced with high-strength steel tendons. These tendons are strategically placed within the concrete structure before it is cured. Once the concrete has reached its specified strength, the tendons are tensioned using hydraulic jacks and then anchored to provide the desired compressive forces.


The post-tensioning process helps to strengthen the concrete by applying internal forces that counteract external loads and increase its load-carrying capacity. This technique is commonly used in large-scale projects such as bridges, high-rise buildings, and long-span structures.


The advantages of cast-in-place post-tensioned concrete include improved structural performance, reduced material usage, increased design flexibility, and the ability to span longer distances with fewer supports. Additionally, it allows for efficient construction in challenging environments or unique structural configurations.


However, it's important to note that cast-in-place post-tensioned concrete requires specialized engineering and construction expertise due to the complexity of the system. Proper design, installation, and maintenance are crucial to ensure the long-term durability and safety of the structure.

Cellular leasing

Cellular leasing, also known as cell tower leasing or wireless tower leasing, refers to the practice of leasing land or space to wireless communication companies for the installation and operation of cellular towers or antennas.


A crucial component in the production of concrete, which is a widely used construction material. It serves as the binding agent that holds the aggregates (such as sand and gravel) together in the concrete mixture. Cement is responsible for the hardening and strength of the concrete matrix through a process called hydration.

Clear-span Construction
(aka Long-span)

Serve as the topmost part or crowning feature of a column. The capital is positioned between the shaft of the column and the concrete slab above it. Its purpose is to provide structural transition between the vertical column and the horizontal elements it supports. The capital serves as an element for distributing the weight of the slab and structure evenly across the column.

Column Capital

Serve as the topmost part or crowning feature of a column. The capital is positioned between the shaft of the column and the concrete slab above it. Its purpose is to provide structural transition between the vertical column and the horizontal elements it supports. The capital serves as an element for distributing the weight of the slab and structure evenly across the column.

Cognitive Map
(aka Cognitive Image Map)

A cognitive map is a mental representation or internalized model of the spatial relationships, layout, and features of a particular environment or territory. It goes beyond a visual image and includes a person's understanding and knowledge of the space. Cognitive maps are formed through an individual's perception, experiences, and interactions with the environment over time.

Cognitive maps help individuals navigate and orient themselves within a space, allowing them to mentally visualize and manipulate the environment. These maps can include landmarks, paths, routes, and significant locations, as well as their interconnections and relationships. Cognitive maps are not limited to visual representations but also incorporate other sensory information, such as sounds, smells, and tactile experiences associated with the environment.

Cognitive maps are dynamic and can be updated and modified as individuals gather new information and experiences. They play a vital role in wayfinding, decision-making, and problem-solving, enabling individuals to plan routes, recall locations, and make spatial judgments. Cognitive maps are not always accurate representations of the physical environment, as they are influenced by personal interpretations, biases, and selective attention.

Overall, cognitive maps serve as mental frameworks that help individuals understand, navigate, and interact with their surroundings, providing a basis for spatial cognition and behavior.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

A branch of fluid mechanics that utilizes numerical methods and computer simulations to analyze and solve problems related to fluid flow and heat transfer. It involves the application of mathematical models and algorithms to study the behavior of fluids, such as gasses and liquids, in various physical systems.

Concentrated Load


Also known as a point load, refers to a load that is applied at a specific point or location on a structure rather than being distributed over an area or length. It is a type of load that can have a significant impact on the structural response and design considerations.


A versatile and widely used construction material composed of a mixture of cement, aggregates (such as sand and gravel), water, and often other additives. It's known for its durability, strength, and ability to be molded into various shapes, making it a fundamental component in the construction industry.

Conflict point map

A conflict point map for parking is a visual representation that identifies and maps the areas within a parking facility where conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians may occur. It provides a comprehensive overview of the potential conflict points, highlighting areas where collisions or near-miss incidents are likely to happen.


The conflict point map takes into account various factors such as the layout of parking spaces, pedestrian walkways, intersections, entry and exit points, and other areas of interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. By analyzing the traffic flow patterns and identifying areas of potential conflicts, designers can assess the safety risks and make informed decisions to minimize those risks.


The map may include symbols, colors, or labels to denote different types of conflict points, such as pedestrian crossing zones, blind spots, areas with high vehicle speeds, or locations where vehicles and pedestrians converge. This visual representation helps stakeholders, including designers, operators, and users, to understand and address potential safety concerns within the parking facility.


By using a conflict point map, designers can effectively plan and implement strategies to mitigate risks, such as adjusting the layout, improving signage and wayfinding, enhancing visibility, implementing traffic calming measures, or incorporating advanced technologies for monitoring and alert systems. The ultimate goal is to create a parking environment that prioritizes safety and minimizes the likelihood of accidents or conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians.

Conventionally Reinforced Concrete

Traditional method of reinforcing concrete structures using steel reinforcement bars (rebar) or mesh. It is widely used in construction and involves placing steel reinforcement within the concrete to enhance its strength and durability. In conventionally reinforced concrete, steel reinforcement is strategically placed in areas where tensile forces are expected. Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension, so the addition of steel reinforcement helps to counteract this weakness. The reinforcement helps to distribute and carry tensile forces, preventing cracks and improving the overall structural integrity of the concrete element.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a proactive approach to preventing crime through the strategic design and management of the environment. In a parking operation, these principles can be implemented to increase the safety and security of the parking facility and its users.


Natural Surveillance: This involves arranging the physical features of the parking facility in a way that maximizes visibility. This could include installing adequate lighting, removing obstructions that might hide individuals or vehicles, and strategically placing CCTV cameras to cover the maximum area possible. Increased visibility can deter potential criminals as the risk of being seen and identified is heightened.


Natural Access Control: This refers to the use of barriers, fencing, signage, and layout design to clearly demarcate public spaces from private ones and control pedestrian and vehicular traffic. For instance, the strategic placement of entrances, exits, and barriers can guide people along designated pathways and prevent unauthorized access to restricted areas.


Territorial Reinforcement: This involves creating a sense of ownership over a space to discourage potential offenders. For a parking facility, this could mean regular upkeep and maintenance, clear signage indicating rules and regulations, and consistent enforcement of parking policies. This sends a clear message that the area is well-managed and monitored, making it less attractive to potential criminals.


Maintenance: Regular maintenance and prompt repairs show that the parking facility is well cared for and monitored. Broken lights, faded paint, or overgrown vegetation can create an impression of neglect, which can attract unwanted activity. Regular upkeep not only makes the facility more appealing to users but also reinforces the perception of an active presence, which can deter criminal behavior.


Applying CPTED principles in a parking operation context not only enhances the safety and security of the facility but also improves the overall user experience by creating a more orderly and inviting environment.


It's worth noting that while CPTED can be highly effective, it should be used as part of a larger, comprehensive approach to crime prevention and community safety.

Crossover Utility Vehicle (CUV)

A type of vehicle that combines features of both a traditional sport utility vehicle (SUV) and a passenger car. CUVs are designed to provide the utility, versatility, and higher driving position of an SUV while offering improved fuel efficiency, maneuverability, and comfort similar to a car.

Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM)

A unit of measurement used to express the flow rate or volume of air or gas that passes through a given point in a system within one minute. It represents the amount of air that can be moved or exchanged in a specific time frame.

Customer relationship management (CRM)

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a business strategy and set of practices that focuses on managing and nurturing relationships with customers. It involves the use of technology, processes, and methodologies to analyze customer data, interactions, and behaviors, with the aim of improving customer satisfaction, loyalty, and retention.

Cutoff Luminaires

A fixture that controls emitted light to less than 2 percent above horizontal and less than 10 percent above an 80-degree angle from a vertical line through the light source.

Cyclone fencing

"Cyclone fencing", also known as chain-link fencing, is a type of woven fence usually made from galvanized or LLDPE-coated steel wire. The wires run vertically and are bent into a zig-zag pattern so that each "zig" hooks with the wire immediately on one side and each "zag" with the wire immediately on the other. This forms the characteristic diamond pattern seen in this type of fence.


This type of fencing serves multiple purposes in a parking operation context. It can be used to secure the outer perimeter of the parking facility, helping to prevent unauthorized access and thereby enhancing overall security. It can also be deployed to divide different sections within the parking lot, assisting in the efficient management of space and vehicle movement.


Moreover, due to its transparent nature, chain-link fencing allows for visibility across the fence. This feature is advantageous in maintaining surveillance and ensuring that any unusual activity within or around the facility can be quickly noticed and addressed. Plus, given their relatively low maintenance requirement compared to other fencing types, cyclone fences are a practical choice for parking operations from a long-term perspective.


Areas within the facility that house critical equipment or storage can also be enclosed with this type of fencing for added protection. In sum, cyclone fencing contributes significantly to the security and efficient operation of a parking facility.